miércoles, 28 de diciembre de 2011

Le CICR http://www.icrc.org/fre/war-and-law/conduct-hostilities/index.jsp

 Il est important de toujours se rappelller


La conduite des hostilités

Photo illustration for section conduct of hostilities. ICRC ref. ru-d-00008-11 Les règles du droit international relatives à la conduite des hostilités réglementent et limitent les méthodes et moyens de guerre que les parties à un conflit armé peuvent utiliser. Elles ont pour but d'établir un équilibre entre une action militaire légitime et l’objectif humanitaire consistant à atténuer les souffrances humaines, en particulier parmi la population civile.


Très intéressant l'analise de l'OCDE sur l'écart entre riches et pauvres.
Ariel Umpiérrez

Société: Les gouvernements doivent s’attaquer au fossé record qui sépare les riches des pauvres, selon l’OCDE

05/12/2011 - Le fossé qui sépare les riches des pauvres dans les pays de l’OCDE est au plus haut depuis plus de 30 ans, et les gouvernements doivent agir sans délai pour combattre les inégalités, selon un nouveau rapport de l’OCDE.

"Toujours plus d’inégalité : pourquoi les écarts de revenus se creusent" constate que dans la zone OCDE, le revenu moyen des 10 % les plus riches représente aujourd’hui environ neuf fois celui des 10% les plus pauvres.

L’écart de revenus s’est creusé jusque dans des pays de tradition égalitaire comme l’Allemagne, le Danemark et la Suède, passant de 5 à 1 dans les années 80 à 6 à 1 aujourd’hui. Il est de 10 à 1 en Corée, en Italie, au Japon et au Royaume-Uni, et toujours élevé de 14 à 1 aux États-Unis, en Israël et en Turquie.
Au Chili et au Mexique, les revenus des plus riches restent 25 fois supérieurs à ceux des plus pauvres – record de la zone OCDE –, mais ont fini par entamer un recul.

L'inégalité de revenus est beaucoup plus élevé dans certaines grandes économies émergentes en dehors de la zone OCDE. Avec un écart de revenus de 50 à 1, l'écart de revenus du Brésil demeure beaucoup plus marqué que dans le monde industrialisé, mais a nettement faibli au cours de la décennie écoulée.

Tambien está muy buena la
Guía práctica para el uso de las micro nanzas en las operaciones del ACNUR.

Manual de terreno para la implementación de las directrices del ACNUR

Muy interesante de leer o releer es el Manual de terreno para la implementación de las directrices del ACNUR para la determinación del interés superior del niño y de la niña.

martes, 27 de diciembre de 2011


Doctors at Your Door: Are House Calls Making a Comeback?

A program in New York City is reviving house calls for Medicare patients with multiple illnesses in hopes of saving money on emergency room visits and hospital care.
Siempre hemos pregonado este tipo de iniciativas en el medio urbano.

Read more: http://healthland.time.com/#ixzz1hk4Dvlfm

http://www.nature.com/news/2011/111026/full/478439a.html Malaria


Para alguien como yo que contrajo 3 veces la terrible enfermedad malaria en Africa, esta nota de NATURE es alentadora.


Malaria vaccine results face scrutiny

Experts question early release of incomplete trial data.
The RTS,S/AS01 candidate vaccine offers poor protection against severe malaria.The RTS,S/AS01 candidate vaccine offers poor protection against severe malaria.Reuters/J. Okanga
"Malaria vaccine could save millions of children's lives"; "World's first malaria vaccine works in major trial"; "Malaria vaccine almost here". To judge from last week's headlines, scientists had made a big breakthrough in the long campaign to create a malaria vaccine, proving its effectiveness with interim results from a huge phase III clinical trial in Africa1.
Yet several leading vaccine researchers, who are critical of the unusual decision to publish partial trial data, argue that the results raise questions about whether the RTS,S/AS01 candidate vaccine can actually win approval.
RTS,S has been in development for some 25 years, initially by the US military, and since 2001 by a public–private venture between the PATH Malaria Vaccine Initiative (MVI) and the drug-maker GlaxoSmithKline (GSK), supported by US$200 million in funding from the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation. Bill Gates himself announced the interim results at the Gates Malaria Forum in Seattle, Washington.
Gates' speech and the MVI's public-relations material were suitably circumspect about the results, but they were "immediately translated into headlines about [reductions] in death and mortality", says Andrew Farlow, an economist at the University of Oxford, UK, who has previously assessed the RTS,S programme2. "But the data are not telling you that at all."
Some researchers question whether the results should have been published before all the data were available; full results are expected in 2014. Interim trial data are usually reported only to regulatory authorities, and clinical trials published only once all the data are in, noted Nicholas White, a malaria expert at Mahidol University in Bangkok, in an editorial3 accompanying the interim results. "There does not seem to be a clear scientific reason why this trial has been reported with less than half the efficacy results available," he wrote.
The publication presents vaccine-efficacy data for infants aged 5–17 months, but not for those aged 6–12 weeks, who are the stated target of the trial: it is this group that would receive the malaria vaccine alongside routine immunizations. The aim of the trial is to provide the World Health Organization (WHO) with the information it needs to consider licensing the vaccine, and recommend it for use in that age group. "What is the point of publishing the interim data on the 5–17-month-olds?" asks Stephen Hoffman, a veteran malaria researcher and chief executive of a rival vaccine effort, Sanaria, based in Rockville, Maryland.
The MVI's director, Christian Loucq, argues that the results were "robust enough to be published. We decided this before we knew the results; we felt it was our scientific and ethical duty to make the results public when they become available."
One of the biggest claims made in the paper is that RTS,S reduced the total number of episodes of clinical malaria in the older group by 55.1%, compared to controls. This measure of efficacy is recommended for assessing a partially effective vaccine4. But the public expects vaccine efficacy to describe protection over a period of time, argues Judith Epstein, a captain and paediatrician at the US Military Malaria Vaccine Program in Silver Spring, Maryland. Recalculating the trial data shows that RTS,S protected just 35–36% after 12 months, she says, adding that the paper should have presented both numbers. The study also showed no detectable impact on mortality, and it is too early to tell whether RTS,S actually protects against malaria, or merely delays infection.
The paper did report that RTS,S reduced severe malaria by 47% in the older group. But combining that result with available data from the younger age group cut that number to 34.8% — meaning that for the youngest children, the benefit must be even smaller. "The real question mark is the 34.8% efficacy in severe disease," says Blaise Genton of the Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute in Basel, and a member of the WHO technical advisory group for RTS,S. The results suggest that the vaccine might fall short of expectations, laid out in 2006 by a WHO-led consortium5, that it should have a "protective efficacy of more than 50% against severe disease and death and lasts longer than one year". "If it doesn't reduce deaths, and has only a modest effect on severe malaria, these are going to be big questions for decision-makers at WHO, GSK and the Gates Foundation," says Hoffman.
Click here

Another worrying finding is that the frequency of serious adverse events, such as convulsions and meningitis, was significantly higher in the vaccinated group, although the data are too preliminary to draw firm conclusions.
But Hoffman, like many researchers contacted by Nature, says that RTS,S still marks a significant achievement. It is the first vaccine against a parasite, Plasmodium falciparum, to consistently show a significant protective effect in large-scale trials. The phase III trial of RTS,S resulted in groundbreaking cooperation with African scientists, who led the 11 trials in 7 countries, says Hoffman. "I think that those teams deserve an incredible amount of recognition and congratulation." 


This article originally described Plasmodium falciparum as multicellular instead of unicellular. The error has now been removed from the text.


Muy buena la nota publicada por la revista científica inglesa NATURE sobre el trabajo de Medicos sin Banderas en Argentina.
by Ariel Umpierrez

miércoles, 21 de diciembre de 2011

martes, 20 de diciembre de 2011


Brasil: hacia ambientes 100% libres de humo

16 de diciembre de 2011 -- El gobierno del Brasil ha tomado medidas históricas para proteger la salud de sus más de 190 millones de habitantes al sancionar una ley que prohíbe fumar en locales cerrados de uso colectivo, públicos o privados y que prohíbe la publicidad del tabaco en los puntos de venta, entre otras medidas de control de tabaco en el país. La nueva ley convertirá el Brasil en el país más grande del mundo con ambientes 100% libres de humo.

Ariel Umpierrez


A new FAO study released today shows how plants and fruits from Amazonian forests can be used to improve people’s diets and livelihoods.
Ariel Umpierrez

domingo, 18 de diciembre de 2011

WHO http://www.who.int/topics/millennium_development_goals/child_mortality/es/index.html. Ariel Umpierrez

 La Organizacion Mundial de la Salud en su sitio
Ariel Umpierrezhttp://www.who.int/topics/millennium_development_goals/child_mortality/es/index.html
El objetivo consiste en reducir la mortalidad infantil aún más, o sea en dos terceras partes, para 2015.
La consecución del ODM de reducir la mortalidad infantil supondrá alcanzar la cobertura universal con intervenciones cruciales eficaces y asequibles en lo concerniente a: atención de la madre y el recién nacido; alimentación del lactante y del niño pequeño; vacunas; prevención y tratamiento de casos de la neumonía y septicemia; lucha contra el paludismo; y prevención y atención del VIH/SIDA. En países con tasas de mortalidad elevadas, estas intervenciones podrían reducir el número de defunciones a menos de la mitad.

viernes, 16 de diciembre de 2011

Organizacion Mundial de la Salud. WHO. Objetivos del Milenio http://www.who.int/topics/millennium_development_goals/es/index.html

Organizacion Mundial de la Salud. WHO. Objetivos del Milenio

Organizacion Mundial de la Salud

http://www.who.int/topics/millennium_development_goals/es/index.html Estadisticas de la OMS. Organizacion mundial de la Salud
Los Objetivos de Desarrollo del Milenio de las Naciones Unidas son ocho objetivos que los 191 Estados Miembros de las Naciones Unidas convinieron en tratar de alcanzar para 2015.por Ariel Umpierrez